Rural Population Recording Study: The Metabolic Syndrome in Combination With Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Anastasia Galanopoulou, Nikolaos Kondylis, Dimitrios Gougourelas, Eleftheria Lelekaki

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, waist circumference


The aim was to assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its characteristics and the relationship with smoking, as well as the presence of cardiovascular events in a rural population, which underwent regular medical examination.


Methodology: In 230 patients(51.75% men, median age 74 years, range 16-99 years) who came for the first time to the regular clinics of Goura’s Health Center, the parameters of Metabolic Syndrome{MS} (waist circumference, blood pressure [BP]), fasting glucose[FG], triglycerides[TG], HDL cholesterol), smoking history and cardiovascular disease were recorded. The National Cholesterol Education Program(NCEP) and the American Heart Association(AHA) were used to diagnose MS.


Results: The incidence of MS was 45%. There was no difference between the sexes. Patients with MS were older(73.7 ± 14.4 years) than the rest(65.8 ± 21.5 years, p = 0.002). The frequency of the individual parameters of the MS were: increased BP 82.1%, increased FG 87.8%, decreased HDL 85.4%, increased TG 29.3% and increased waist circumference 82.5%. Patients with MS had significantly higher FG(p <0.0001), systolic BP(p <0.0001) and total cholesterol (p = 0.0001). The frequency of smoking did not differ between those with or without MS. Coronary heart disease(CHD) and history of stroke were associated with age (p = 0.0001), the presence of Diabetes Mellitus(p<0.0001), MS(p<0.0001) and hyperlipidemia(p < 0.0001), while they were not related to smoking frequency(p = 0.25). In the subgroup of patients without metabolic syndrome, however, smoking was strongly associated with increased frequency of CD and history of stroke(p = 0.001).


Conclusions: MS was common in the rural population and its occurrence was significantly dependent on age. The increased presence of diabetic and hypertensive patients in the sample is emphasized. MS was more strongly associated with the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke than smoking. Good control of MS in elderly patients may help reduce cardiovascular events.

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